Location & Hours

7686 Oak Ridge Hwy.
Knoxville, TN 37931

Monday: 9:00am thru 6:00pm
Tues. & Wed.: 8:30am thru 5:00pm
Thursday: 9:00am thru 6:00pm
Friday: 7:30am thru 4:30pm
*Fri: appts till 1pm, office open all day*
Get Directions
vision and learning
 

There is controversy over the exact relationship between vision and learning. For example there is a negative correlation between distance refractive error and reading ability. Myopic or nearsighted children who cannot see clearly at a distance without glasses are more commonly good readers. Children who spend tremendous amounts of time reading become nearsighted. Before Alaska became a state myopia was rare. After becoming a state, more than 50 percent of the children in Alaska developed nearsightedness. Thus, correlation is such that nearsightedness or poor distance vision is highly correlated with success in reading. Restated another way, poor distance vision is associated with better reading abilities.  Farsighted children statistically are poorer readers than myopic children.

 

Some of the mechanical visual skills which are related to reading include focusing or accommodation, and eye teaming, or convergence. Fatigue of one or both of these systems may interfere with reading. There is also a relationship between eye movements such as saccades (whereby we change fixation from one target to the next) and smooth following movements known as pursuits and reading. Children who cannot make accurate eye movements are often found to skip lines and words while reading.

The visual system was originally designed so that the peripheral vision was responsive to motion detection (danger from the jungles) with a central portion for fine discrimination (to identify the source of danger; e.g., a lion.) In the school environment the child is expected to ignore the peripheral portion of their visual system and pay attention with the central portion. If the child can not ignore the peripheral portion, he/she becomes distracted.  Improvement in eye movement skills often results in less distraction and fewer errors of skipping words while reading.

loses place
 

Reading requires very accurate saccadics, which are fixations from one spot to another.  Children who have poor eye movements are easily distracted and lose their place.  Remember, the eye movement system was designed so that peripheral vision detects motion and danger.  Imagine what happens when the system works correctly in the class room.  As soon as there is peripheral movement, the eyes move toward the source of movement. This results in the complaint of inattention.  Thus, reflexive eye movement skills must be socialized so that they do not respond reflexively to peripheral information.  In addition, speed and accuracy must be trained so that one does not lose one’s place.

The skills are easily improvable with vision therapy.  Once the information is brought into the eyes, it must be sent back to the brain for appropriate processing. The information must be utilized and integrated with the sensory and motor areas of the brain. Defects in the perceptual (interpretation of visual system) and motor (the integration with output, e.g., hand-eye coordination) may interfere with the reading process. Perceptual motor skills are key in the early acquisition of reading skills. A deficit is important to identify very early on-- i.e., five to seven years of age. Remediation of the skills at a later date, such as age 12, will be less effective for reading. Thus, early identification and treatment is essential. It is evident that there is more to good vision than 20/20.

 

It has been presumed that children who reverse letters or words see them backwards.  This is false.  They have directional confusion.  In the real world direction has no meaning.  For example, a chair is a chair no matter which way it is placed.  Changing direction does not change interpretation.  In the world of language direction changes meaning.  Connect the bottom of a chair and it looks like a "b".  Turn it 180 degrees it becomes a "d", flip it upside down and it becomes a "q" and flip it again it becomes a "p".  Thus, direction changes meaning.  The difference between "was" and "saw" is direction.

 

As mentioned previously, we should correct all optical errors of the eyes (glasses); eliminate eye muscle problems; and create smooth accurate eye movements.  In addition, we should make sure that we properly interpret what we see and use it appropriately.  These are known collectively as perceptual skills and include form perception, size and shape recognition, visual memory, and visual motor integration (hand-eye coordination.)

Latest Testimonials

I appreciate Dr. Shane seeing Ralph so soon. He was the reason we went to the hospital. He did an excellent job in diagnosing Ralph as having had a stroke. If it wasn't for him there's no telling how...
Ralph S - Featured review

Dr. Presson is very thorough ans patient and takes the time to get to know me personally. I'm very satisfied with the services. I absolutely recommend them.
Anonymous - Verified customer

Dr. Michelle Presson

Dr. Michelle Presson

Dr. Michelle received her undergraduate degree from the University of South Florida in Tampa and her Doctor of Optometry from the Southern College of Optometry in Memphis in June of 1996.

Dr. Shane Presson

Dr. Shane Presson

Dr. Shane received his undergraduate degree from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville and his Doctor of Optometry from the Southern College of Optometry in Memphis in June of 1995.

Rachel Powell

Rachel Powell

Rachel is our General Office Manager. Rachel attended Grace Christian Academy through high school and received her Associates in Marketing at Pellissippi State in 2012. She graduated from King University with her Bachelor’s in Business Management in May 2014.

Michelle Beavers

Michelle Beavers

Michelle is one of our front office managers. Michelle has been with Karns Vision Center since the doors were opened in 2008. She is instrumental in all aspects of our office and patient care.

Kirsten Hibbert

Kirsten Hibbert

Kirsten is one of our front office managers. She went to Karns High School and graduated from Maryville College in 2010 with her Bachelor’s Degree in Business Management.

Kaitlyn

Kaitlyn

Kaitlyn is one of our optometric technicians who assists our doctors with our patients. She is invaluable to our office in the optical as well. Kaitlyn graduated from Karns High School in 2011.

Kelsey

Kelsey

Kelsey is one of our optometric technicians. She helps our patients learn the basics of contact lens insertion and removal and assists in our optical department. Kelsey graduated from Karns High School in 2012 and is currently attending Johnson University to receive her Religious Studies and Bible Bachelor's Degree.

Zoë

Zoë

Zoe is one of our optometric technicians who helps in every department of our office. She graduated from Halls High School in 2012 and graduated in 2016 from Tusculum College with her Bachlor's Degree of Arts in Psychology.

The Vision Clinic

Built on the foundation of patient convenience and satisfaction, we serve all of your family’s eye care needs under one roof. We're looking forward to seeing you!